BOOT(8)                   UNIX System V                   BOOT(8)

          boot - from power on to the login prompt

          At power on the machine reads the first sector of the boot
          device into memory and executes it.  This bootstrap code
          loads /boot, the Minix Boot Monitor.  The monitor loads the
          kernel binaries from /minix, or the newest file in /minix if
          it is a directory.

          The Minix system is now running, the different tasks
          initialize themselves and control is transferred to the last
          one, init.

          Init is the grandparent of all Minix processes, it is
          responsible for starting login processes on each terminal,
          but first it runs /etc/rc.

          /etc/rc checks the state of the system and starts daemons.
          First it sets the keyboard translation to the mapping in
          /etc/keymap if present, then it reads the time zone from
          /etc/timeinfo followed by a call to readclock(8) to set
          Minix time from the hardware clock.  Next the file systems
          are checked if necessary and the /usr file system is

          The system is now ready for multiuser startup, /etc/rc
          starts the update(8) and cron(8) daemons, and initializes
          the network services.  /etc/rc finally recovers crashed
          editor buffers and cleans out the tmp directories.

          Init reads /etc/ttytab and starts a getty(8) for each
          enabled terminal line to allow a user to log in.

          Many features of the drivers inside the kernel are
          controlled by settings in the boot environment.  The values
          of these variables are usually colon or comma separated
          numbers configuring the driver.  DPETH0 = 300:10 tells the
          ethernet driver to use I/O address 0x300, interrupt request
          10, and the default memory address (0xD0000, values may be
          omitted) for the first ethernet board.  (Note that IRQ 2 is
          redirected to IRQ 9 on AT's and PS/2's, so use 9 if a device
          is jumpered for 2.)

          Variables that are special to both the monitor and the
          kernel are described in monitor(8).  This section lists
          extra variables or variable settings:

          hd = at | bios | esdi | xt
               Choose the driver that is to be used for the hard disk,
               in order: IBM/AT (classic AT or newer IDE), BIOS

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               (generic driver), ESDI (some PS/2's), or IBM/XT.  By
               default the first of these drivers that is enabled is
               used.  Most drivers are present in the kernel as
               distributed, but may be taken out by modifying
               /usr/include/minix/config.h.  (An XT should always use
               the BIOS driver, not the XT driver, because BIOS calls
               are cheap on an XT.  The XT driver can be used on AT
               machines with an old XT controller.)

          DPETHn = on | off
               Turn an ethernet board on or off.  The driver is by
               default in "sink" mode for all boards.  The sink mode
               allows one to use the driver without an ethernet board
               installed.  The driver will play /dev/null for that
               device, i.e. nothing comes in, and anything send out is
               dropped on the floor.  If the board is turned on then
               the driver will use it to send out packets, if it is
               turned off then the driver will fail for that board.

          DPETHn = I/O-addr:irq:mem_addr
               Set the I/O address (hex), IRQ (decimal) and memory
               address (hex) of the n-th ethernet board and turn it
               on.  By default they are configured as 280:3:D0000 and
               300:5:CC000.  The memory address is ignored for the
               Novell ethernet boards, but may be explicitly set to
               zero to indicate that the board is a Novell ethernet
               board.  You do not need to specify the IRQ with modern
               Western Digital 8013 compatible ethernet cards, the
               driver asks the board what its IRQ is.  (Note that the
               default IRQ conflicts with the second serial line, so
               the serial line is turned off if the ethernet board is
               configured for IRQ 3.)

          DPETHn_EA = e0:e1:e2:e3:e4:e5
               Set the ethernet address of the n-th ethernet board.
               The address is normally obtained from the ethernet
               board, so only in exceptional circumstances is this
               setting ever needed.  (Use the address of the main
               server if you want a career change.)

          AHA0 = I/O-addr:bus-on:bus-off:tr-speed
               Configure the Adaptec 154xA SCSI host adapter to use
               the given I/O address (hex), Bus-on time (decimal),
               Bus-off time (decimal) and transfer speed (hex).  The
               default is 330:15:1:00.  The default transfer speed is
               always 5.0 Mb/s (code 00) ignoring the jumper settings.

          sdn = target,lun
               Program SCSI disk sdn to have the given target and
               logical unit number.  The target and lun of a tape or
               other SCSI device may be changed by setting the sdn
               variable that would be used had it been a disk.  So

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               tape device st7 can be set to target 4, lun 1 with

          MCD = I/O-addr:irq
               I/O address (hex) and IRQ (decimal) of the Mitsumi CD-
               ROM driver, by default 300:10.

          To use TCP/IP you have to compile a kernel with networking
          enabled, and unless you are running standalone you have to
          enable the ethernet driver.  See the DPETHn boot variable
          above.  The driver supports these ethernet cards:  Western
          Digital 8003, Western Digital 8013, SMC Elite Ultra 16,
          Novell NE1000, Novell NE2000.  Many newer variants of the
          WD8013, now under the SMC brand, are also supported.

          You are likely to use TCP/IP in one of three situations:

               Standalone with no connection to a network.

               In a small network with no support from a "big" host.

               Connected to a large network with address and name

          In each situation you need a different set of configuration

          The machine is configured with a fixed IP address:
  This is one of the addresses Sun used to give
          to machines without a registered network address.  This
          address is normally blocked at gateways, so it can do no
          damage if used in a real net by accident.  You need one
          file, /etc/hosts, that should look like this (using the name
          "darask" as an example):


        Small Network
          In a network where the Minix machine can't obtain its IP
          address and name from a different host you need specify the
          ethernet address to host name translation in the /etc/ethers
          file for use by the RARP daemon.  Suppose you have two
          machines in your network then /etc/ethers could look like

               0:0:c0:a:77:23      darask
               0:0:c0:a:68:ce      burask

          Use hostaddr -e to find out what the six octet ethernet

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          address of a host is.  Use the address as printed: lowercase
          hex digits, no leading zeros.  The /etc/hosts file shows
          their IP addresses:


          Warning!  Do not add ethernet addresses of diskless
          workstations to your ethers file.  A Sun for instance has
          the stupid habit of booting from the first RARP server that
          answers, probably your Minix machine...

        Large Network
          In a network with a central network administration your
          machine's IP address and name are given by the RARP and name
          services of the special servers on the network.  For a new
          machine you need to apply for an IP address and host name
          with your network administrator supplying the ethernet
          address of your machine.  You don't need any configuration
          files now, the irdpd and nonamed daemons automatically find
          a router and a name server.

          Note that no knowledge of the IP address or hostname of the
          Minix machine itself is necessary, it all comes from the
          RARP and name servers.  A series of Minix machines can
          therefore set up identically.  Even if you have no RARP or
          name servers you can still set them up identically if you
          list all the Minix hosts in the hosts and ethers files.

        Simpler configuration tools
          The rarpd, irdpd and nonamed daemons are complex little
          programs that try to obtain information about their
          surroundings automatically to tell the machine what its
          place in the network is.  It should come as no surprise that
          there are simpler utilities to configure a machine.  On a
          memory starved machine it may even be wise to configure a
          machine statically to get rid of the daemons.  The first
          daemon, rarpd, can be replaced by:

               ifconfig -h host-IP-address

          to set the IP address of the machine.  Note that this is
          only necessary if there is no external RARP service.  The
          second daemon irdpd can be replaced by setting a static

               add_route -g router-IP-address

          (if there is a router.)  The last daemon, nonamed, can be
          replaced by an entry in /etc/resolv.conf that specifies an
          external name daemon:

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               nameserver nameserver-IP-address

          The ifconfig and add_route calls can be placed in the file
          /etc/  The calls to the daemons will have to be
          edited out of /etc/rc.  Note that these changes undo all the
          efforts to make Minix TCP/IP autoconfigurable.  Make very
          sure that all the IP addresses are correct, and that the IP
          address of your machine is unique.  (Mistakenly using the
          address of a main server will make all other machines look
          at your machine, and will make all the users of all other
          machines look at you.)

          /boot               Minix Boot Monitor.

          /minix              Kernel image, or directory containing

          /etc/rc             First of the system initialization

          /etc/hosts          Name to IP address mapping.

          /etc/ethers         Name to ethernet address mapping.

          monitor(8), init(8), inet(8), loadkeys(8), readclock(8),
          fsck(1), update(8), cron(8), ttytab(5), getty(8),
          hostaddr(1), ifconfig(8), irdpd(8), nonamed(8), rarpd(8),
          hosts(5), ethers(5), set_net_default(8).

          Checking File Systems.
               If the system has crashed then fsck is called for the
               root and /usr file systems.  It is wise to reboot if
               the root file system must be fixed.

          Finish the name of device to mount as /usr: /dev/
               If the name of the /usr file system has not been set in
               /etc/fstab.  You can type a device name, say fd0.

          hostaddr: unable to fetch IP address
               TCP/IP misconfiguration.  The RARP may have failed
               because the ethernet address of the machine is not
               entered in either the remote or the local ethers file.
               Either talk to your Network Administrator, or make an
               ethers and a hosts file.

               If you see an IP address instead of a host name then
               the system failed to translate the IP address.  Either
               talk to your Network Administrator to have the reverse

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               address translation tables fixed, or make a hosts file.

          The names "darask" and "burask" are names of cities from the
          Dutch translation of the novel "The Many-Colored Land" by
          Julian May.  The author of this text likes names of hosts to
          be things that contain people, like cities and ships.

          Indefinite hangs are possible if I/O addresses or IRQ's are
          wrong.  A driver may babble about addresses and IRQ's, but
          that does not mean that what it says is true, it may just be
          configured that way.  It is very difficult to find
          peripherals on a PC automatically, and Minix doesn't even

          Kees J. Bot (

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